NASA Astrobiology Assessment 2008

From the National Academies Press comes the 2008 “Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute” [1]. The Executive Summary section begins: Astrobiology is a scientific discipline devoted to the study of life in the universe—its origins, evolution, distribution, and future. It brings together the physical and biological sciences to address some … Continue reading

Crick’s Central Dogma and Closed Causal Loops

A recent article in the Journal of Biology, entitled “Small changes, big results: evolution of morphological discontinuity in mammals” [1], discusses how significant phenotypic changes appear to often be the result of variations of gene expression due to regulatory controls, instead of as a direct result of the primary sequence … Continue reading